University "Deaf Culture Study Guide"
terminology: Terminology changes
over time with varying levels of acceptance from different factions of
society at any one time. As of the time of this writing (early 21st century)
the word Deaf has been accepted by the culturally Deaf community and major
organizations representing Deaf people (such as the National Association of
the Deaf and the World Federation of the Deaf) as an acceptable and proper
term to use when discussing Deaf people.
Some people feel the word Deaf should always be capitalized
for ethnic reasons. (The term "ethnic" refers to the classification of large
groups of people according to shared cultural, linguistic, racial, tribal,
religious, or national origins or backgrounds.) Other people prefer to use
the capitalized word "Deaf" when referring to being culturally Deaf and use
the lowercase word "deaf" to refer to the physical condition of being deaf.
If you are a student in a Deaf Studies program you should check with your
instructor regarding preferred local writing "style guidelines" at your
school. If you are a student and your local teacher prefers you to always
capitalize the word Deaf then you should respect your instructor and follow
his/her wishes. If you are submitting a paper for inclusion in an academic
journal then you should follow the submission guidelines for that journal
and/or include in your article an early discussion of terminology and
capitalization and your reasons for your capitalization choices. This
study guide in general uses the lowercase word "deaf" to refer to the
physical condition of "not hearing." This guide also strives to use the
uppercase word Deaf to refer to Deaf people, culture, and organizations.
Please don't get hung up on a typo or a "yet to be updated
not-yet-capitalized" use of the word "deaf" in this guide or website. Focus
on understanding the concepts not worrying about the typos.
Capital "D" Deaf:
Refers to being culturally Deaf. Embracing the cultural norms and values of
the Deaf Community.
Captions or captioning refers to the use of subtitles on movies or videos to
convey via text the voiced information or sounds that are happening in
video. "Close captioning" (which is often abbreviated to "CC") refers to
captioning that is normally not visible during regular viewing but can be
turned on via a close caption decoder, chip, or software which can read the
signal or file containing the captioning. The phrase "open captioned" is
the equivalent of "subtitled" and doesn't need to be "turned on" since it is
made part of the viewable video (and can't be "closed" or "turned off").
Hard-of-Hearing: The phrase
"Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing" is an inclusive version of the term "Deaf." Many
modern agencies and authors use the phrase "Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing" as an
appropriate and acceptable way to refer to the spectrum of individuals they
serve or about whom they write. It is a much better phrase than "The Deaf
and Hearing Impaired." The term "hearing impaired" is considered offensive
by many Deaf people. Also, technically, d/Deaf people "are" "hearing
impaired" so the phrase "The Deaf and Hearing Impaired" is redundant. Think
of the phrase "Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing" and the term "Deaf" as looking
through a microscope if you look under high power you see the distinctions.
When you look at the Deaf Community closely you notice, "Oh, there are some
(HH) who can voice and have enough residual hearing to make use of
hearing-aids to communicate directly (albeit with difficulty) with Hearing
people (either in person or on the phone) -- and there are others
(Deaf) in the community who don't voice, don't wear hearing aids, and
communicate with Hearing people only via writing, in-person interpreters,
video-relay interpreters, or (if the Hearing person knows sign) sign
language. However, if you pull your microscope back a bit and take a
broader view, you see they are all part of the "Deaf Community" and thus are
all "Deaf." That is why many HH people label and or think of themselves as
"Deaf" in general and "Deaf/hh" in specific.
In general, the "Deaf Community" consists of those Deaf people throughout
the world who use sign language and share in Deaf culture.
Deaf Culture consists of the norms, beliefs, values, and "mores" shared by
members of the Deaf Community. [The word "mores" is pronounced "mawrays" and
is a noun that means "the essential or characteristic customs and
conventions of a community. "Mores" include the customs, conventions, ways,
way of life, traditions, practices, and habits of a people. - (Google
Generally refers to state-run residential schools for the Deaf.
Culturally Deaf adults who attended a Deaf School are proud of that fact.
A "Deaf School" is a state-run residential education institution. State
residential schools for the Deaf are important institutions in the Deaf
community. A "Deaf School" specifically refers to a state residential
school. This is different from a "Deaf program" or a "day program" where
students do not live on campus.
Deaf World / Deaf
Community: The phrases "Deaf
World" and "Deaf Community" overlap quite a bit in typical real world usage
but some distinctions are possible: The Deaf World includes all Deaf
people as well as their families, friends, allies, employers, interpreters,
teachers, priests, audiologists, and others with ties to the Deaf Community.
The Deaf Community is made up of individuals that use sign language
and are focused on living their lives rather than trying to change their
status and live in the Hearing World. Thus a preacher or parent who learns
sign language might be a part of the Deaf Community but a cochlear implant
doctor is not. An interpreter who goes to Deaf events, has Deaf friends,
and supports Deaf causes is a part of the Deaf Community. But an
interpreter who simply goes to a day job where they interpret for one Deaf
client and then goes home and has little or no additional contact with Deaf
people -- is not a member of the Deaf Community.
Culturally Deaf people who are able to use hearing aids, speechread, and
talk with their voice may choose to label themselves as Deaf in general and
hard-of-hearing in specific so as to not overstate their status. For
example, sometimes during introductions or explanations a person will sign,
"I/me DEAF" and then will add the sign for "hard-of-hearing" immediately
afterward as a way of stating that he/she is considers himself to be Deaf
but with the caveat that he/she can hear to some extent.
Culturally Deaf people prefer to be called Deaf.
The term "deafness" is still quite common in blogs and writings -- even by
Deaf people who are active in the Deaf Community. However you should know
that there are growing numbers of people within Deaf Community that strive
to avoid using the word "deafness" in their writing and communication
because it has traditionally been a label applied to Deaf people by Hearing
people in the context of "disability." Many Deaf consider the term
"deafness" to embody primarily negative aspects of being Deaf. Conversely,
when discussing ourselves, our personal journeys, our level of
self-acceptance, and our progress toward self-actualization as a person who
is Deaf we often use the term "Deafhood." Please realize that while many
people still use the term "deafness" and you will still often see it online
and in older writings this is a situation of language evolution away from
one term and toward another. The term "deafness" has its uses and may
persist indefinitely but you should at least be aware that "some" bloggers
and activists are actively denouncing the term.
In general, culturally Deaf people do not view themselves as being
disabled nor belonging to a "disability group." Instead we see ourselves as
a linguistic and cultural minority. We are an ethnic group with a shared
culture and bonded together by a common language. That doesn't mean that
there aren't physically deaf people in the U.S. who consider themselves
disabled. There are indeed many such individuals, but they are generally not
fluent in ASL, did not attend state residential schools for the Deaf, are
not married to a Deaf person, did not attend Gallaudet University (or a
university with a strong Deaf program), and cannot realistically be
considered culturally Deaf – and therefore are not members of the cultural
The hand you do most of your signing with.
Deaf President Now. DPN was both a campus protest and an international Deaf
movement that took place the week of March 6, 1988 at Gallaudet University
in Washington D.C.. Elizabeth Zinser, a hearing woman, had been newly
elected president of Gallaudent University. The students and international
Deaf Community protested and demanded a Deaf president be appointed instead.
This resulted in I. King Jordan, a Deaf man, becoming president of Gallaudet
Fingerspelling (in ASL) consists of 22 handshapes that—when held in certain
positions and/or are produced with certain movements—represent the 26
letters of the American alphabet. Fingerspelling is also sometimes called
"The Manual Alphabet."
There are type fonts that resemble fingerspelling. A popular fingerspelling
font is called "Gallaudet (TrueType)" and is available for download for free
from the net.
GA: means Go
Ahead. This is an abbreviation commonly used while typing on a TTY
(teletype). It means you are done with your turn and it is the other
person's turn to go ahead and type.
Miner: The youngest Son of
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet. Dr. Edward Miner Gallaudet was the founder and the
first president of the Columbia Institution for the Deaf and the Dumb
(Renamed Gallaudet College in 1893 and renamed again in 1986, Gallaudet
University upon receiving university status) in 1857 in Washington, D.C. He
served as a president from 1864 to 1910. (Source: Gallaudet.edu)
Hopkins: Born December 10, 1787
in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He entered Yale University at age 14. He
graduated from Yale first in his class three years later, and decided to
join the ministry. Reverend Gallaudet met Dr. Mason Cogswell and his Deaf
daughter Alice. Dr. Cogswell persuaded Mr. Gallaudet to travel to England
to study their methods of teaching Deaf students. There Gallaudet met a Deaf
educator, Laurent Clerc, and convinced him to come back to America and help
establish the first American school for the Deaf.
Left-handed people sign left-hand dominant--a mirror image of right handed
signers. Left-handed people also fingerspell with their left hand.
The phrase "hard-of-hearing" refers to people who have some degree of
hearing loss but who can still function in the hearing world. Some
hard-of-hearing people choose to learn sign language, form relationships
with other Deaf, join Deaf organizations, attend Deaf events, embrace their
Deafhood, and call themselves Deaf. It is acceptable for culturally Deaf
hard-of-hearing individuals to simply refer to themselves as Deaf.
The term "Hearing Impaired" is not used by Deaf people to describe
ourselves. We refer to ourselves as being Deaf. When referring to all
people with a hearing loss we tend to use the phrase, "Deaf and hard of
hearing." Sample of outdated usage: The Regional Center for the Hearing
Impaired." A sample of a current, appropriate usage: The Regional Center
for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing." While at one time the phrase "hearing
impaired" was considered to be politically correct, it was an external label
applied to Deaf people by Hearing people. The phase Hearing Impaired was
never embraced by the Deaf Community.
A person who can hear and has the mindset of a person who can hear is a
referred to as "Hearing person." The term "Hearing" can be capitalized to
refer to being a member of the "Hearing" culture but many writers do not
A "hearing school" generally refers to a public (or private) school that is
mainly attended by children who can hear and taught by educators who use
The term "Hearing School" refers to a typical public school. In the Deaf
Community we sign "HEARING SCHOOL" to mean "public school." A "Hearing
School" is one at which the main mode of communication is "speaking."
(Hearing Person or Hearie): Non-Deaf people. The term "Hearing" is sometimes
applied broadly to refer to all people who have the ability to hear. Within
the Deaf Community the term "Hearing" often refers to people who have
functional hearing, prefer to talk, and are generally unfamiliar with sign
language and Deaf Culture.
Hard-of-hearing. This is sometimes also written as HoH. Hard-of-hearing
people have some hearing loss but can generally use the phone with
amplification and can generally understand spoken speech depending on a
number of factors including: distance, volume, facial hair, lighting,
familiarity with topic, situational cues, accents, and noise. Thus the
environment has a big impact on whether a HH person functions as a Hearing
person or a Deaf person.
Hugs or hugging:
Deaf people tend to hug more than Hearing (American) people.
Individualized Education Program. Deaf children are entitled to an IEP.
Interpreter for the Deaf: In the
American Deaf Community the term "interpret" generally means to change
spoken English into ASL or from ASL to spoken English. We generally refer to
individuals who interpret between sign language and spoken language as
"interpreters" (not "translators"). Note: "Interpreter" is spelled with an
"er" at the end, (not an "or").
meeting new people: Upon meeting
for the first time, Deaf people tend to exchange detailed biographical
information and describe our social circles in considerable depth.
Interpreter Training Program. IPP stands for Interpreter Preparation
Junior National Association of the Deaf. This is the youth division of the
National Association of the Deaf
In the Deaf community you rarely see the phrase "Culturally Deaf."
Rather we use just "Deaf." We are Deaf. Some of us are stone deaf and
can't hear an oncoming train (and have died because of it). Some of us have
quite a bit of residual hearing and can talk to our mom on the phone (but
would rather sign to her if she could sign). It is a spectrum. Deaf people
have varying levels of residual hearing. What makes us Deaf
isn't our level of residual hearing but rather our choice to be a part of
the Deaf Community. We do not need to add the word "culturally" to the
uppercase word "Deaf." The phrase "culturally Deaf" is redundant because
the uppercase spelling of the term "Deaf" already includes the concept of
"culture." Sometimes we add the word "culturally" to specifically point out
that we are not discussing being physically deaf. There is (or was) a
popular phrase in the Deaf world: "Deaf People Can Do Anything Except
Hear." Actually, that phrase is not reflective of reality. The
reality is there are many varying degrees of residual hearing amongst
culturally Deaf people. From "profoundly" deaf, to hard of hearing. This is
similar to the way Blind people have varying degrees of sight. Some see no
light at all, but many can see "quite a bit" (especially with glasses). You
could even argue that some people with "normal" hearing are culturally Deaf
by virtue of having Deaf parents and having grown up in the Deaf community.
I've even visited a charter school where hearing children were taught
alongside Deaf children by Deaf instructors using ASL.
Deaf leave taking tends to be extended. In other words Deaf "good-byes"
tend to take a long time.
Lighting and the ability to see each other is very important to Deaf people.
One of the reasons Deaf people sometimes prefer to hang out in the kitchen
is because the lighting is better.
Lowercase "d" deaf:
Refers to being physically deaf, (not culturally Deaf). Physical "deafness"
refers to a level of hearing below which a person is unlikely to understand
speech for everyday communication purposes. For example, a person's hearing
is not sufficient use the phone.
LRE stands for Least Restrictive Environment. While most parents,
educators, and administrators agree that it is good to educate a child in
the least restrictive environment the question becomes: What education
environment is "least restrictive" for a Deaf child? A residential school
for the Deaf, a local school with an interpreter, a day program, an
inclusive charter school, or some other education environment. Hearing
administrators often feel that mainstreaming Deaf students into public
schools provides "the least restrictive environment" but members of the U.S.
Deaf Community generally consider residential Deaf schools to be the least
Langue des Signes Québecois is a popular signed language used in Canada.
Many people in Canada also use ASL.
In the Deaf World, "mainstreaming" refers to the placement of a Deaf student
in a hearing school with or without an interpreter.
Manually Coded English. There are several signing systems designed to
portray English on the hands. These various systems can be lumped under the
terms MCE, Manual English, or Signed English.
People who feel that being deaf is a problem to be solved subscribe to the
"medical model" of deafness. Also sometimes called "Pathological Model."
Movies focusing on or heavily involving Deaf Characters. For example: Bridge
to Silence, Love is never Silent, Children of a Lesser God, and others.
National Association of the Deaf. The NAD is the world's oldest Deaf
advocacy organization. See www.nad.org
National Captioning Institute. The NCI was established in 1979 as a
nonprofit corporation with the mission of ensuring that Deaf and hard of
hearing people, as well as others who can benefit from the service, have
access to television's entertainment and news through the technology of
Not Even Related to a Deaf Adult. A comical reference to Hearing people who
don't have ties to the Deaf World.
(former) National Fraternal Society of the Deaf. Offered insurance as well
as fraternal and community service activities for Deaf people.
Non-manual markers: Non-manual markers are facial expressions and body
movements. Non-manual markers are used to inflect signs. That means to
change, influence, or emphasize the meaning of a sign or signed phrase. For
example, when asking a question that can be answered with a "yes" or "no"
you raise your eyebrows a bit and tilt your head forward slightly.
National Theater of the Deaf. The NTD is a touring theater group composed
of Deaf and hearing actors who entertain audiences worldwide through music,
sign language, and the spoken word.
National Technical Institute for the Deaf. NTID is located in Rochester New
York and is a popular choice for Deaf students.
Oral / Oralism:
A philosophy of encouraging (forcing) Deaf to speak and read lips rather
than use sign language.
Public Law 94-142: Passed in 1975 PL 94-142 promoted a free and appropriate
education for all children.
Pidgin Signed English. Now referred to as "contact signing." Contact signing
is often used when Deaf and hearing individuals need to communicate. One way
to describe it is as a "middle ground" between artificially invented signed
English systems and ASL. PSE follows English word order while using ASL
Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf. The RID is the worlds largest
association of interpreters for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing. The RID
conducts and promotes certification of interpreters for the Deaf. See
Reverse Skills Certificate. This is a type of interpreter certification.
This refers to the ability to understand and voice what is being signed.
Signing Exact English ("SEE 2"). An invented sign system intended to
represent English with the intent to assist deaf children in the acquisition
of English. The letters SEE can also stand for "Seeing Essential English
(SEE 1)" which preceded Signing Exact English.
There are many physically-deaf or hard-of-hearing people who are not a part
of the Deaf Community. Such individuals are part of the greater Deaf
World but they choose to not "commune with" Deaf people nor learn our
language—thus are not part of the Deaf Community.
Simultaneous Communication. In the Deaf World "simcom" refers to the attempt
to communicate via signing and voicing at the same time. Signing and voicing
at the same time is frowned upon by many Deaf academics and Deaf community
leaders since the signed message tends to suffer (have less fidelity).
However, many Deaf individuals "do" use simcom quite a bit -- especially
when in mixed Deaf/Hearing environments.
Stop Keying. It is (was) used to end a TTY (teletype) conversation. It
indicates that you are going to "hang up" or terminate the conversation.
SKSK (a double SK) is a response by the other person that he acknowledges
that you are ending the conversation and that he or she is quitting too.
Supplementary Security Income. People on SSI receive regular checks from
the government to help pay for basic living expenses.
Many, (and likely "most"), culturally Deaf people if given the chance to
become Hearing would choose to remain Deaf. Even if we became fully able to
physically "hear" we would not leave our Deaf spouse, quit our Deaf-friendly
job, stop attending out Deaf socials, nor stop using sign language as our
main mode of communication. For many of us, magically (or medically)
receiving the ability to "hear" would not instantly grant us the edibility
to use spoken English. Sure, there are plenty of bi-cultural Deaf/hh
(culturally Deaf but physically Hard-of-Hearing) people who might "make the
jump" to "full hearing" -- since they already have Hearing friends
and already use their voices to speak but it is not like that for
"hard core" Deaf who have already built a comfortable, engaging,
The ability to skillfully tell a story is highly valued in Deaf Culture.
Total Communication. TC is a philosophy of Deaf Education that advocates
using signing, voicing, writing, and other methods of communication.
Unfortunately TC often becomes simply an implementation of "simcome"
(voicing and signing simultaneously).
TTY or TDD:
Tteletype or Telecommunication Device for the Deaf. In the old days, a TTY
was a huge clunker that required a wheelbarrow to move around. TTY's shrank
in size and people began calling them TDDs (or even Text Telephones in some
government literature) but the Deaf Community continued to refer to the
devices as TTYs. Instant Messaging via text and video has made TTYs
Uppercase Deaf /
Lowercase deaf: While the
uppercase and lowercase spellings of Deaf and deaf have not yet become
standardized in print media, in general the lowercase spelling refers to
being physically deaf while the uppercase spelling refers to someone who has
internalized the language, beliefs, values, traditions, attitudes, manners,
and ways of the Deaf community.
Video Relay Service:
A relay service allows Hearing people to call Deaf people, and vice versa.
A communication assistant (CA) answers a call from either a Deaf person or a
Hearing person and then dials the number of the other person and then relays
information back and forth between the two people. In the early days of
Relay Service this was done between a telephone and a TTY (teletype).
Modern relay services now use video for (at least) the signed portion of
the call and thus are referred to as a video relay service" or VRS.
Views of Deafness:
There are two main societal views regarding what it means to be d/Deaf: The
cultural model and the pathological (or medical) model. Those who think of
being d/Deaf as a simply another way of going through life (experiencing
life) subscribe to the "cultural"
view (or model) of deafness (or rather "Deafhood"). Those who view
being deaf as a physical ailment or pathological condition that needs to be
cured or fixed subscribe to the pathological view of deafness. The term
"pathology" (in general) refers to the study of disease. The pathological
view is typically held by people in the medical profession. Particularly
those who make money by attempting to "fix" d/Deaf people. Culturally Deaf
people don't consider ourselves to have a disease or problem that must be
cured in order to have a good life. I took a sign class with me to visit a
Deaf party. Some of my students sat with me in the Deaf circle. I decided to
ask if any of my friends would like to become "hearing." Suppose a magic
pill could be taken and and they would wake up the next morning "hearing."
Each Deaf person said (via signing) NO! My students were shocked. I
explained in class the next day that Deaf people do not consider our
condition pathological. To us, our deafness (Deafhood) is cultural.
Vocational Rehabilitation. Each state in the United States has a division
or a program that focuses on providing vocational rehabilitation services
for residents of the state who are disabled but might be able to work if
provided rehabilitation services and/or support. This is an important
government agency because it helps provide training and employment
assistance to many Deaf people.
Some d/Deaf people never voice. Others voice as well as a typical Hearing
person. Others engage in "selective voicing." One place you will sometimes
see such Deaf people using voice is with their kids. In the home parents
often need to get their kids attention and voicing is an easy way to do it.
Also the children get used to the Deaf voice and can understand it just
fine. Deaf are much less likely to voice to a hearing stranger. With our
kids we feel comfortable, but with strangers we feel very cautious (as any
oppressed group would). We don't tend to voice when we are talking with
other Deaf skilled signers. Why voice to other Deaf? Another reason is we
can't use voicing and ASL grammar at the same time. (See Simcom). It is
(generally) not appropriate to ask a Deaf person if they can voice.
Video Relay service.
01. In the Deaf world the hearing children of Deaf
parents are generally well accepted and considered to make good interpreters
because of their familiarity with ASL and Deaf Culture. The special term
that these children are called is: *CODA (Child of Deaf Adult)
02. What is the philosophy of embracing two languages and cultures?
03. What is the world's oldest Deaf advocacy organization? *National
Association of the Deaf (NAD)
04. At what university did the "Deaf President Now" event take place?
05. What is the name of government program that provides regular paychecks
to help some Deaf people pay for basic living expenses? *Supplemental
Security Income (SSI)
06. What service provides communication assistants or interpreters to
facilitate Hearing people calling Deaf people, and vice versa? *Video Relay
07. What is the government agency that helps provide training and employment
assistance to many Deaf people? *Vocational Rehabilitation
08. In the 1940's and 1950's where did Deaf people tend to gather (which
starting around the 1960's rapidly declined)? *Deaf Clubs
09. What do we call text or subtitles that are embedded in a video signal
which can be displayed on demand? *Closed Captions (CC)
10. What do we call a state-run residential education institution for
individuals who are Deaf? *Deaf School
11. In the Deaf community what do we call a typical public school? *Hearing
12. What is the common syndrome that affects many interpreters and Deaf
people and causes numbness and/or pain in the wrists? *Carpal Tunnel
13. What was the protest that took place the week of March 6, 1988 at
Gallaudet University in Washington D.C. and became an international Deaf
movement? *Deaf President Now (DPN)
14. What phrase is considered "politically correct" by many Hearing people
but is considered inappropriate and/or offensive by many culturally Deaf
people? *Hearing Impaired
15. What term refers to a philosophy of encouraging (forcing) Deaf to speak
and read lips rather than use sign language? *Oral / Oralism
16. What do we call "non-Deaf" people who can hear and who embrace the
culture of people who can hear? *Hearing
17. Signing and voicing at the same time is frowned upon by many Deaf
academics and Deaf community leaders. What do we call signing and voicing at
the same time? *Simcom
18. What do we call the phone system used by many Deaf people that let's
them see and be seen by the person on the other end of the call? *Video
19. This law or "act" was originally passed in 1990 and has had a profound
beneficial impact on the lives of Deaf people. *"Americans with
20. This person is held in low esteem by many in the Deaf community because
of his efforts to promote oralism. *Alexander Graham Bell.
21. What is an appropriate way to get the attention of a room full of Deaf
people? *Flick the light switch a couple of times.
22. This organization was set up in 1967 and has chapters all over the U.S.
Their purpose is to provide support, encouragement, and information to
families raising children who are Deaf or hard of hearing. (For more
information, see: http://www.deafchildren.org) *American Society for Deaf
23. This national organization is dedicated specifically to the improvement
and expansion of the teaching of ASL and Deaf Studies. *American Sign
Language Teachers Association (ASLTA)
24. This signed language is used in England and other areas of the world.
One of its distinguishing features is that it uses a two-handed manual
alphabet. *British Sign Language (BSL)
25. A highly esteemed liberal arts university in Washington D.C. for Deaf
and hard-of hearing students. *Gallaudet University
26. Considered rude in the Deaf Community: *Talking without signing in the
presence of Deaf people (if you know how to sign).
27. Culturally Deaf couples tend to hope for: *A deaf baby
28. Signs that are used to represent general categories of things or can be
used to describe the size and shape of an object (or person). These signs
can be used to represent the object itself, or the way the object moves or
interacts with other objects (or people). Another definition is: "A set of
handshapes that represent classes of things that share similar
characteristics." *Classifiers (or "depictive verbs")
29. This Deaf man was born south of Lyons, France, in 1785. He became deaf
due to an accident when he was very young. He enrolled at age 12 at the
National Institute for the Deaf in Paris and graduated eight years later and
became a tutor for the Institute. He journeyed to America at the request of
Thomas H. Gallaudet in 1817 and helped establish the first American school
for the Deaf. He retired at age 73. *Laurent Clerc
30. An obsolete term that refers to all people who have a hearing loss. This
term is considered offensive by some Deaf. *Hearing Impaired
31. In 1966 R. Orin Cornett at Gallaudet University in Washington D.C.
developed this visual communication method that used eight handshapes in
four different positions along with the natural mouth movements that occur
during speech. *Cued Speech
32. People who feel that being Deaf is about language and connection to
other Deaf people subscribe to what model or view of thinking about the
33. What defines a person as a member of the Deaf Community? *The individual
chooses to identify himself/herself as a member of the community, embraces
Deaf Culture, and is accepted (generally) by other members of the Deaf
34. Historically, how has Deaf Culture been transmitted? *Residential
Schools for the Deaf (Deaf Schools) (and prior to the 1960's -- Deaf Clubs).
35. What percent of Deaf people have at least one Deaf parent? *Less than
five percent. [Some sources say 10% but according to the article "Chasing
the Mythical Ten Percent: Parental Hearing Status of Deaf and Hard of
Hearing Students in the United States" authored by Ross E. Mitchell, Michael
A. Karchmer, less than five percent of deaf and hard of hearing children
(receiving special education) have at least one Deaf parent. Source:
36. Why are Deaf communities unusual among cultural groups? *Most members of
Deaf communities did not acquire their cultural identity from their parents.
[Bauman, Dirksen (2008). Open your eyes: Deaf studies talking. University of
37. How many signed languages are there throughout the world? *Over 200.
[Source: Gallaudet University Library: http://libguides.gallaudet.edu/content.php?pid=114804&sid=991940
Retrieved 6/29/2015. Also see: Ethnologue which lists 138 or so: https://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/deaf-sign-language
38. American Sign Language is most closely related to what language? *French
39. What approach to education poses a threat to the continued existence of
Deaf Culture? *Oralism
40. Culturally Deaf people in the United States prefer to use what language?
*American Sign Language
41. What type of achievement or progress is valued by culturally Deaf people
in the United States -- group or individual? *Group or collective
achievement and progress (not individual)
42. Suppose you need to walk between two Deaf people who are having a
conversation, what should you do? *Walk through without stopping.
43. If you arrive early or late to a Deaf meeting what should you do?
*Provide details or an explanation
44. Why do Deaf people tend to show up early to lectures or large events?
*To get a good seat where they can see clearly
45. What kind of architecture is valued by Deaf people? *good lighting,
minimal visual obstructions, automatic sliding glass doors, safe walkways
46. What were Betty G. Miller and Chuck Baird? *famous Deaf artists
47. An organization dedicated to promoting professional development and
access to the entertainment, visual and media arts fields for individuals
who are Deaf or hard of hearing. *D-PAN (Deaf Professional Arts Network)
48. Where and when did the second Second International Congress on Education
of the Deaf meet and (Hearing educators) vote to embrace oral education and
remove sign language from the classroom? *1880 in Milan, Italy
49. While watching another person sign it is appropriate to focus on the
50. Is it okay to gently tap a person (who isn't looking at you) on the
shoulder to get their attention? *yes
In ASL Linguistics what do we call facial expressions and body movements
that are used to inflect signs? *Non-manual markers (NMMs)
What do we call signs which use handshapes that can be used to represent
categories of things that share the same general characteristics?
What is the language of choice of Culturally Deaf people in America, parts
of Canada, and many other areas in the world? *American Sign Language
[End of Study Guide]
If you would like even
more information about Deaf Culture see:
Culture 1 |
2 | 3 |
| 9 | 10 |